Rust Memory Layout Optimization (Enum)

Usage of enum-types is inherent in Rust, usually causing additional overhead due to the enum-discriminator. But, there are a number of optimizations that may eliminate this memory overhead. The following is just a cheatsheet. For further reading see https://rust-lang.github.io/unsafe-code-guidelines/layout/enums.html

Data-Less and Uninhabited fields

Introduced by MR https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/pull/45225

Size optimizations implemented so far:

  • ignoring uninhabited variants (i.e. containing uninhabited fields), e.g.:
    • Option<!> is 0 bytes
    • Result<T, !> has the same size as T
  • using arbitrary niches, not just 0, to represent a data-less variant, e.g.:
    • Option<bool>, Option<Option<bool>>, Option<Ordering> are all 1 byte
    • Option<char> is 4 bytes
  • using a range of niches to represent multiple data-less variants, e.g.:
    • enum E { A(bool), B, C, D } is 1 byte

An integer that is known not to equal zero.

See https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/num/struct.NonZeroUsize.html

This enables some memory layout optimization. For example, Option<NonZeroUsize> is the same size as usize:

use std::mem::size_of;
assert_eq!(size_of::<Option<core::num::NonZeroUsize>>(), size_of::<usize>());

And analogous to it all other NonZero types https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/num/index.html

Please note, using an optimized Option<NonZeroX>, its enum-discriminator will be one of the ‘unused’ bit-combinations in the underlying integer representation, for example the bit combination all zero representing state Option::None.